Diabetic angiopathy is a collection of changes in all blood vessels caused by changing sugar level, blood vessel damage cause poor blood flow in arms and legs called peripheral vascular disease. Without good blood flow, it takes longer for a sore or cut to heal. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of blood vessels caused by thickening of the vessel walls, it can affect blood vessels throughout the body, including those that supply the skin causing changes due to a lack of oxygen. Symptoms are: loss of hair, thinning and shiny skin, thickened or discoloured toenails.
Diabetic neuropathy is an influence of diabetes on the nervous system causing numbness, pain or tingling in feet and increasing the risk of skin damage and infections due to different than normal levels of sensation. Diabetic neuropathy and vascular disease in the legs contributes to risk of diabetes related foot problems like diabetic foot uclers which can be difficult to treat and sometimes lead to amputation.
Bacterial infections — There are different kinds of bacterial infections affecting the skin. These include boils, which are infections of the hair follicles; styes, which are infections of the glands of the eyelids; and carbuncles, which are deep infections of the skin and the underlying tissue. There also are bacterial infections that affect the nails. With a bacterial infection, the areas involved generally are hot, swollen, red, and sometimes painful. Most bacterial infections require treatment with antibiotics.
Bullosis diabeticorum (diabetic blisters) — In rare cases, people with diabetes develop blisters that look like burn blisters on fingers, hands, toes, feet, legs, or forearms. Diabetic blisters usually are painless and heal on their own. They often occur in people who have diabetic neuropathy.
Diabetic dermopathy —appears as scaly patches that are red or brown, often on legs. There is no pain or discomfort involved.
Digital sclerosis — word "digital" refers to fingers or toes, and "sclerosis" means hardening ,a condition in which the skin on your toes, fingers and hands become thick, waxy and tight, can also cause stiffness of the finger joints.
Eruptive xanthomatosis —This condition appears as firm, yellow, pea-like bumps on the skin, surrounded by red halos and are itchy—usually are found on the feet, arms, legs and backs of the hands.
Fungal infections — An yeast-like fungus called Candida albicans is responsible for many of the fungal infections affecting people with diabetes. This fungus creates itchy red rashes, often surrounded by small blisters or scales. These infections (for example athlete’s foot) usually occur in warm, moist folds of the skin (for example between toes).
Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum — (NLD) is caused by changes in the blood vessels and usually affects the lower legs, skin becomes raised, yellow and waxy, often with a purple border. Sometimes, it can be itchy and painful