Make Up History
is a part of our image and as such has been around for nearly 6,000 years
playing an important role in nearly all cultures. Women throughout history put
their health at risk with their homemade beautifying products. In some cultures
women used poisons arsenic, mercury, lead, and even leeches to give themselves
the pale appearance to look more beautiful. Thankfully, it’s long gone and our
makeup products are now not only safe to use, but often beneficial to our skin.
The methods, brands and approach to makeup were changing, evolving over time
and has become integral part of our lives and true art.
ancient Egypt women use unguent to moisturise their skin and prevent wrinkles
and used kohl to blacken their lashes and upper lid and copper and lead ore to
create the world's first cosmetics.
women used henna to dye their hair and faces.
Romans use chalk to whiten their skin, kohl around their eyes and rouge.
use leeches to bleed themselves to appear whiter.
cosmetics is not accepted by Church as nurturing vanity (1 of 7 Deadly Sins)
women use face powder ‘’Aqua Toffana’’ which included arsenic (causing
sometimes husbands death)
and lipstick is used and eyebrow and hair dying products derived mainly from
natural plants and herbs (sometimes using toxic ingredients as mercury causing
illness and sometimes death)
men use cosmetics, shaving, tweezing single facial hair, using chalk or rouge,
setting new standards of personal hygiene similar to those of the early Roman
Victoria publicly denounced makeup, calling it vulgar and declared use of it
acceptable only by actors. Regency women limited themselves to tweezing
eyebrows, castor oil massaged into eyelashes and rice powder. Ladies relied
more on clothes and natural aids, such as flowers.
cosmetics are allowed to return, but only masqueraded as healers
from Helena Rubenstein and Elizabeth Arden are sold as “Healer for removing
in London decides to sell powder and rouge openly -hugely popular with women,
though not with men. As the suffragette movement struggles to win the vote,
they also fight for the right to look as they please and wear red lipstick as a
symbol of feminine defiance. The work of women during World War I soften MPs'
opposition and the right to vote is won - only for women aged 30 and over - in
Factor (born as Maximilian Faktorowicz in Poland) moved to Los Angeles is
credited for term “makeup” created cream form of makeup suitable for film
industry that went on thinner and, unlike theatrical grease paint, would not
crack. The new makeup became popular.
is founded by French chemist Eugène Schueller, who developed a hair-color
formula. Schueller manufactured his own products and then sold them to French
women are free to experiment, eschewing the natural look for daring styles for
example 'la garçone”, a masculine look inspired by novel and typified by short
hair and vampy make-up. Stylish women begin plucking their eyebrows and wearing
kohl around the eyes. Coco Chanel establishes the must-have beauty accessory of
the century - the tan.
the most popular medium of news and entertainment, brings first screen
celebrities to our doorsteps. Hollywood sets standards for beauty, and everyone
wants to look like movie stars, who have their signature look tailored by Max
Arden and Helena Rubinstein also establish popular cosmetic ranges.
Factor creates new products, including liquid nail enamel in and lip-gloss.
part of its Luxury Products division, L’Oréal owns Lancôme, which starts in
1935, focusing on fragrances. In 1936 the company had expanded its offer
including makeup and skin care products.
Factor introduces stocking cream in response to shortages. Red lipstick is worn
and seen as a symbol of patriotism, as women defy hardship by maintaining their
Lauder with husband Joseph Lauder in 1946 create cosmetics in New York
shortage of men encourages women to try to look as beautiful as they can in the
hope of 'catching' a husband.
beauty industry flourishes -led by Elizabeth Arden and Helena Rubinstein. Avon
is born and the door-to-door cosmetics rep remains the bored housewives' best
friend for the next 20 years.
Taylor stars in Cleopatra, setting new fashion trend of 'Cleopatra eyes', with
dramatically extended kohl pencil lines.
London' style kicks in -the model Twiggy promotes the look –with stronger eyes
and false eyelashes becoming a must-have item.
Quant’s hair is cut into the revolutionary five-point 'bob' by Vidal Sassoon.
Ross and the Supremes define the elegant style of young, black America
celebrated in the first black beauty magazine, Ebony.
Factor creates the first waterproof makeup.
is also an era of increased political activity, the women's liberation movement
emerges against the concept of prettying oneself to please men. Women also
realise that the beauty industry is governed by and perpetuated by men and this
inspires anti-establishment look, bras are burned and women stop shaving their
armpits and legs.
a Somali-born diplomat's daughter, becomes the first black supermodel.
and consumerism are the buzzwords and a super-glam look symbolises the
“get-rich-quick” philosophy of the times. Vanity is celebrated; well applied
make-up is a symbol of the high-maintenance trophy wife.
'Princess Di' becomes the most popular hairstyle of the decade.
Body Shop founder Anita Roddick aims to source cruelty-free and natural
ingredients for cosmetics as a response to increasing profile of animal rights
groups and proves that conscience shopping can be a commercial winner.
become more sophisticated. A desire to enhance natural beauty with less visible
formulas results in a scientific approach to cosmetics.
no longer only cover-up but are 'light-reflecting' and 'wrinkle-defying', too.
The battle against cellulite with expensive creams starts, while the growing
interest in celebrity looks sees top make-up artists such as Bobbi Brown
launching highly successful independent ranges.
Iman, frustrated by the lack of ranges to suit women of colour, succeeds with
her own make-up brand.
Rossellini launches her Manifesto range, designed to for women of all ages.
population feels the urge to remain youthful and the anti-ageing cream becomes
a top seller. Cosmetic surgery is accepted as risk free. Quick-fix treatments,
such as collagen, botox and even breast enlargement injections, can be
performed in lunchtime.
makeup and body painting is performed by makeup artists.
makeup in a form of tattoo is introduced to enhance “natural” look.